The Unique Geology of Wisconsin

Though Kafka Granite sources stone from quarries across the continent, we’re proud to call Wisconsin our home—and the wellspring of many of our beautiful products. But what, exactly, makes this great state the perfect spot for our business? 

Essentially, it’s all in the geology of the area. We’ve put together an overview of the thousands of years of history and natural forces that have made Wisconsin’s geology so unique today. Read on to learn more about this fascinating state.

Wisconsin Stone Over the Centuries

Wisconsin’s uncommon geology didn’t happen in a year—or even a century. It took hundreds of thousands of years for Earth’s cooling and heating patterns to transform the area into what it is today. More specifically, we have glaciers to thank for the vast majority of Wisconsin’s mineral deposits and topography.

The Wisconsin Glaciation

About every 100,000 years, the planet goes through a long period of cooling, followed by a shorter period of warmth. The last occurrence of this cycle, known as the Wisconsin Glaciation, began about that long ago—with the Laurentide Ice Sheet advancing across North America. Large swaths of Wisconsin became covered in ice, which was diverted and interrupted by the natural topography of the area. 

It took thousands of years for the ice to halt its approach and for the glaciers and sheets to melt or retreat from Wisconsin, but that slow process left us with a natural landscape unlike anything else seen in U.S. geology. The shrinking Laurentide Ice Sheet left behind the many lakes and rivers that characterize parts of the state, as well as a wide variety of glacially deposited minerals—the very minerals that create many of the colors in Kafka Granite’s collection!

A Wealth of Minerals

Wisconsin contains deep deposits of iron and other ores, which have characterized the state—just look at the University of Wisconsin’s mascot, Bucky Badger, an homage to the local lead miners of the early to mid-1800s. But you can also find deposits of minerals and gemstones from A to Z across the length of the state. Quartz and calcite are just two extremely common finds.

Decomposed Granite in Wisconsin

Wisconsin’s unique geologic makeup, coupled with thousands of years of natural erosion, also resulted in large deposits of decomposed granite (DG) throughout the state. When feldspar, one of the main components of granite, breaks down, it results in flaking, crumbling material that can be further crushed for projects like pathways and baseball fields. Wisconsin boasts a variety of hues of naturally occurring decomposed granite, from bold reds to vibrant golds.

Decomposed granite mining is limited to certain geographical locations throughout the country, but Wisconsin is particularly rich in this material. Today, DG is extracted from the ground, then sent through a screening process. If needed, this natural resource can be crushed to specific sizes and gradations to meet specifications for a particular mix or project. 

What Does Wisconsin’s Geology Mean to Kafka Granite?

Thanks to the rich landscape created by the last Ice Age, Wisconsin offers an invaluable variety of materials, from natural round boulders to crushed quartz, granite, and marble in a startling range of colors. This selection enabled the rapid growth of Kafka Granite—because we were able to source and acquire so many different colors quickly, and in close proximity to our home base.

A Variety of Colors and Stone Products

This level of variety is not normal in much of the country. Head to another state, and you’ll see nothing but gray limestone for miles. Some areas of the country may not have any granite at all, or may only have one such deposit. It’s not easy to source all of these colors if you’re in the middle of Kentucky, for example. 

Wisconsin’s geology—and that of its surrounding states—allows Kafka Granite to source materials like black, pink, and gray granite, or gray limestone, all within 200 miles. In Pennsylvania, you’ll find more gray granite than you can use, but you won’t find the same range of other products and colors. 

It’s that level of convenience that has allowed us to meet the needs of architects, designers, and stonemasons around the country. In fact, about 85 percent of our colors are sourced from Wisconsin or the Upper Peninsula. 

We have an immense variety of naturally occurring materials, which you can even pick up on from the comfort of your car. The next time you’re in the area, take a drive around the state—notice the shoulders of the road, which are created from whatever stone is locally abundant. You’ll see shades like purple, gray, and green, all of which will tell you that there’s an abundance of stone that color in the area. Around our facility, you’ll notice plenty of gray and black granite.

Natural Stone Products From Kafka Granite

We’re immensely proud of the hard work and entrepreneurial spirit that has made Kafka Granite a leading manufacturer and supplier of specialty aggregates and other building products. Clearly, beautiful, rugged Wisconsin has played a pivotal role in the growth of our company over the years. Not only is it home to our crushing facility; but Wisconsin’s geology means that it offers plenty of natural resources and mineral deposits to satisfy the high demand for unique colors and products.

If you’re looking for natural stone products in a wide variety of colors and sizes, you’ve come to the right place. Contact Kafka Granite today to speak to a knowledgeable sales rep about your project.

Beige Blend Wax Polymer Pathway Mix - Aronomink Golf Club - Newtown Square, PA

How to Properly Maintain Golf Courses through Winter

If you’re lucky enough to own or patronize a golf course somewhere like sunny Florida, you don’t have to worry much about snow, ice, or other cold-weather conditions. But here in the Midwest, golf courses typically have to close up shop during the winter months. 

Come spring, even well-maintained courses will have plenty of prep work to get ready for the golf season. Courses that are ignored or suffer from improper drainage will be significantly worse off. All that melting snow and ice, along with the effects of harsh freeze/thaw cycles, can leave cart paths and the rest of a course a damaged, muddy mess. Let’s take a look at the hard work that goes into maintaining a deceptively quiet-looking course in the wintertime.

Winter Golf Course Needs

Here are just a few of the considerations that golf superintendents and other key managers have to keep in mind as winter approaches and threatens to damage pristine courses. 

Watching the Weather

To maximize the playing season for golfers, courses typically stay open until temperatures get too low or snow covers the greens. They reopen sometime in the spring, when all that snow and ice has melted and the ground has thawed. This requires a number of days with temperatures above freezing, and that can be hard to come by in the Midwest. Because winter weather can be unpredictable, courses must stay closely informed of approaching weather patterns in order to determine when it’s time to close for the season—and when they can safely reopen without risking damage to the grounds. 

Minimizing Turf Loss

Courses that are exposed to severe weather each winter typically suffer damage to their greens. Depending on ground exposure, weather patterns, and other course damage, greens may need to be covered with materials like straw, sand, or even tarps to minimize turf loss. They’ll also likely need applications of fungicide to avoid the risk of snow mold diseases.

Snow can actually protect turf from the ravages of winter winds, low temperatures, and ice. Unbroken ice, in particular, can cause turf loss, due to the lack of oxygen in the soil. If ice persists, it may need to be removed periodically to allow for gas exchange. Some courses even erect a kind of greenhouse over portions of the greens in order to raise temperatures and promote the germination of new grasses.

Preemptive Golf Course Pathway Solutions

Golf course pathway materials like asphalt can freeze, crack, and heave during the winter, leaving groundskeepers with extensive maintenance to get through before play can resume. Other permeable materials will turn pathways into a muddy mess come spring. Some courses are turning to new pathway options to make getting ready to open after winter that much easier. Kafka’s Wax Polymer Pathway Mix is a non-permeable formulation that doesn’t freeze, so you won’t see your cart pathways growing muddy and soft as the weather warms. On top of that, the material’s resistance to erosion makes it the ideal option for courses that cover hilly terrain and want to emerge from the winter with intact pathways. 

Protecting Equipment

Winter weather can badly damage everything from golf carts to pins to maintenance equipment, so it’s essential for courses to store these materials away from the elements. Courses typically also use this time to update or replace older equipment, setting the stage for a better player experience in the springtime. 

Tackling Projects

It can be difficult for golf courses to complete large projects when golfers are playing the course for most of the daylight hours. As such, winter provides an opportunity for courses to take care of more significant projects. That doesn’t mean that groundskeepers will be out in the middle of a snowstorm, but the winter is long here in the Midwest, and the right conditions and an empty course can allow plenty of time to tackle projects or source new materials.

Effective Golf Course Pathway Solutions From Kafka Granite

Here at Kafka Granite, we take great pride in producing high-quality aggregates, while at the same time adapting and developing exciting new applications for these reliable materials. Our Wax Polymer Pathway Mix has proven to be a valuable solution for courses who need cart pathways to stretch across hilly terrain. This product won’t crack, crumble, or heave, and it remains malleable, allowing for easy reworking if necessary. And because this material is non-permeable, it holds up to repetitive freeze/thaw cycles, making it the perfect low-maintenance solution to muddy, eroding, or heaving pathways. The natural look of our Wax Polymer Pathway Mix also makes it less obtrusive than asphalt or concrete pathways. 

In pursuit of other exciting golf course applications, we’ve also developed erosion-resistant bunker sand, which stands up beautifully to heavy rains and severe winds. This product utilizes the same engineered polymeric wax that makes our pathway mix so useful.

Reach out today to learn more about our golf course pathway solutions, Wax Polymer Bunker Sand, and other landscaping materials that will take your course to the next level. We look forward to working with you.

Wax Polymer Pathway Mix for Golf

Keeping Golf Course Pathways Pristine With Kafka Granite

You don’t need us to tell you that golf course pathways are essential to the operation of a course. Whether your terrain is crisscrossed with cart paths or features narrow, walking-only trails, that pathway system enables your entire course to function. When golfers aren’t walking the paths, maintenance workers and caretakers need those pathways to transport material and equipment, seed the greens, and otherwise monitor and maintain the course.   

At Kafka Granite, we put our years of experience in specialty aggregates to work developing customized solutions to age-old problems like erosion and weathering. Often, that involves an innovative application of one of our products—or the creation of something entirely new. Along those lines, we developed our Wax Polymer Pathway Mix to overcome an issue with pathways washing out at the Erin Hills golf course, site of the 2017 U.S. Open. 

We’ve put together some helpful information for golf courses looking to install high-quality pathways or overcome existing terrain issues. Here’s what you need to know when looking for a new pathway material. 

Where Traditional Golf Course Pathways Fall Short

Standard hardscapes like asphalt or concrete might not be the best choice for your course. These pathway materials fail in a number of ways, from small to seemingly insurmountable. Poor design, coupled with inappropriate pathway material, can leave your hardscape cracking and crumbling or more natural solutions messy and muddy – what’s worse? The wrong material can also leave your pathways dusty in summer and mucky in the spring, not at all what your golfers need for a good game. Many path solutions require constant maintenance or expensive repairs – problems Kafka aimed to solve.

When it comes to aesthetics, pathways play a significant role in the look of your course. Concrete may wear fairly well, but it won’t blend in with the rest of your course. And that’s not even going into the care of these hardscapes—some materials will need significant maintenance as they weather under severe temperatures and erosive effects of rain or high winds.

Characteristics of an Effective Golf Course Pathway Mix

You’ve likely run into some of the issues mentioned above while working to keep your course pristine. If you’re searching for a new type of pathway material to install, you should have a few qualifications in mind for a material that will avoid or minimize these problems. 

Your cart pathways require a pathway mix that is durable but doesn’t need extensive maintenance. Golf courses with hilly terrain and steep surfaces will benefit from a versatile pathway material that can resist erosion and withstand foot and cart traffic. And depending on the location of your course, your cart pathways will need to be able to resist the ravages of severe weather patterns and changing temperatures.

In short, your ideal pathway material is:

  • Durable
  • Versatile
  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Installed simply
  • Easily maintained

So, where can you find a material that fits all of these criteria? It might be time to reach out for an expert opinion. A knowledgeable professional at Kafka Granite can narrow down your options and work to identify the right material that will meet the unique needs of your course. When in doubt, refer back to those material qualifications and examine how a potential pathway mix might either fit in with your existing cart paths—or replace them entirely. 

Kafka Granite’s Golf Course Pathway Solutions and Bunker Sand

At Kafka Granite, we’ve developed a pathway material and bunker sand specifically for tricky golf course terrain. Here’s a look at two popular products that have made their way onto golf courses across the Midwest. 

Wax Polymer Pathway Mix

Our Wax Polymer Pathway Mix fits the bill for a wide variety of golf course needs, but it’s particularly useful for highly erosive pathway systems. Made up of a non-erosive, wax-coated aggregate, this pathway material blends in with the natural beauty of a course while standing up to heavy foot and cart traffic. Its unique composition allows the Wax Polymer Mix to be laid on the steepest of hills and the twistiest of paths. 

Because the material is pre-mixed, installation is simple. The process doesn’t even require water! Your team just needs to lay the mix, level the surface, and compact—and you’ll be left with an attractive, resilient pathway. This material is also impermeable, waterless, and dustless.

Wax Polymer Bunker Sand

Kafka’s Wax Polymer Bunker Sand was originally developed for high maintenance, out of play bunkers at the Whistling Straits course. This material is a great choice for courses looking to cut back on the amount of maintenance required to keep out of play bunkers in good shape. Made to be extremely resistant to erosion, our bunker sand holds up under everything from heavy rain to high winds. And in terms of installation, the product can be easily placed over preexisting bunker sand.   

Before Kafka Wax Polymer Bunker Sand

Immediately following 2″ of Rain with Kafka Wax Polymer Bunker Sand

Transform Your Golf Course Today

Whether you’re looking for a versatile pathway material for the hilliest section of your course or a reliable bunker sand that can stand up to the forces of nature, Kafka Granite can help. We’re dedicated to providing the materials and information you need to make your course truly remarkable. Contact us today to request samples or learn more about how we can help make your pathway project a success.

Custom Erin Hills Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI - Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Erin Hills Golf Course: A Kafka Case Study

Just over two hours away from Kafka headquarters in nearby Hartford, Wisconsin, sits a beautiful, picturesque golf course. With a landscape created by glacier movement thousands of years ago, Erin Hills is a golf venue that can’t be rivaled by many. The 652-acre course still maintains some of the streams that were carved by the last glacier to cover Wisconsin, and it offers visitors exquisite vistas composed of rolling hills and swaying grasses. 

Erin Hills is so breathtaking that it was chosen to play host to the 2017 U.S. Open. The tournament brought together 156 players from all over the world—both a massive honor and a massive undertaking. With so many skilled professionals coming to the course to play along its stunning route, Erin Hills decided to replace their existing walk paths with highly-durable paths that could withstand the harsh Wisconsin winters and the course’s hilly terrain.

Kafka Granite was called in to replace Erin Hills’s highly erosive existing pathway system and replace it with a custom-blended aggregate color of both stabilized and wax polymers pathways. With a long history of working with various aggregate binders for these purposes, we at Kafka Granite felt confident that we could deliver a pathway system that would complement the natural beauty of Erin Hills and reduce maintenance needs for their grounds crew. Here’s how we did it.

Custom Erin Hills Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI - Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

The Project: Developing and Implementing Golf Course Pathway Solutions

WHEN: Fall of 2012 to Spring of 2017

WHERE: Erin Hills Golf Course, 652 acres of property in Hartford, Wisconsin. 

WHY: Erin Hills desired natural-looking cart and walking paths that blended in with the course, but there were issues with erosion due to the hilly terrain. Their grounds crew was spending far too much time maintaining their walking paths when their efforts could have been better spent maintaining the actual course. 

Custom Erin Hills Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI - Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Refusing to settle for obtrusive hardscapes such as asphalt or concrete, Erin Hills opted for a natural aggregate path blended with wax polymer, thanks to Kafka Granite. On flatter terrain, they chose to combine their aggregate with a stabilizing binder. With the first ever U.S. Open to be held in Wisconsin on the horizon, pressure was on to update all of the walking paths with Kafka Granite materials before the June 2017 event. 

WHO: Time was of the essence, which made the use of our pathway materials even more of a no-brainer. Our products are designed to be simple to install and easy to maintain. For this project, the Erin Hills ground crew was able to install their new pathway system themselves, without needing to hire a contractor.

WHAT: Erin Hills decided to use both stabilized and wax polymer pathways. Our Stabilized Pathway Mix consists of decomposed granite or crushed stone screenings blended with a stabilizing binder. This mixture binds and locks the pathway mix to create a durable, permeable natural aggregate surface. These stabilized decomposed granite surfaces are crafted to better withstand forces that would otherwise lead to erosion, which was the issue with the previous pathway mix that Erin Hills had been using. 

Custom Erin Hills Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI - Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Our Wax Polymer Pathway Mix combines natural crushed stone screenings or decomposed granite carefully pre-blended with an engineered polymeric wax in an entirely waterless process to create a unique paving alternative. This wax-coated aggregate mix creates a dustless, sealed, non-permeable, but yet natural-looking surface that’s perfect for use on a golf course, as it can stand up to both extensive wear and tear and the hilliest of terrain. 

Erin Hills was looking for a natural solution that would blend in perfectly with their gorgeous scenery. At Kafka Granite, we offer over 50 different colors of pathway solutions, so it was no problem to find the perfect color match that Erin Hills had envisioned.

HOW: One hurdle that we had to overcome while working on the Erin Hills project was finding the correct binder for the pathway mixes. We recommend binders based on local climate, pathway slope and individual aggregate type. With a property as large as Erin Hills, our dedicated team members worked hard to develop the ideal mix needed. During this process, our team was actually able to devise and implement a brand new wax polymer binder that was cleaner and performed better than the planned original binder.

Custom Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI

Joe Sell (North Shore Superintendent), Chris Zugel (Whistling Straits Superintendent), Glenn Kafka (Kafka Granite Owner), and Zach Reineking (Erin Hills Superintendent) during installation at Erin Hills

The wax polymer pathway mixes present much less of a challenge, as our wax polymer pathway is pre-blended for easy installation and maintenance. In fact, no water is needed for the installation of this product, and compaction is optional. Crews chose not to compact the new pathways with roller. Since Erin Hills desired a more natural-looking pathway system, it was decided to let foot traffic compact the new pathways naturally. 

Wax polymer pathways were a great alternative for the Erin Hills project because these pathways don’t get muddy or dusty like more traditional walkway options. This helped keep all golfers and observers dry and clean during the 2017 U.S. Open and makes the pathways ideal for local golfers all season long.

Additionally, the Erin Hills grounds crew will no longer be spending large amounts of time maintaining the pathways and will now be able to focus on the course itself. Our wax polymer pathways are easy to maintain and can be efficiently manipulated if subtle changes are needed. These new pathways have no problem standing up to the harsh freeze/thaw cycles that the course is subjected to in Wisconsin due to their non-permeable composition.

The stabilized pathways used at Erin Hills were chosen for their affordability, permeability, and design. With over 50 different color variations, Kafka Granite was able to match the aggregate blend already used for the wax polymer pathways that allowed for a seamless transition into the stabilized pathways. The stabilized pathways were used in flatter areas of the course, as the use of Stabilized Pathway Mix is not recommended on slopes over 10%. Kafka Granite’s stabilized pathways are made to withstand heavy foot traffic and reduce mud, dust, and erosion, all while still remaining permeable. Following installation recommendations, Erin Hills installed 3 inches of prehydrated stabilized pathway mixture over a DOT-approved base course for proper stability and drainage.

Custom Erin Hills Blend Wax Polymer Pathway - Erin Hills Golf Course - Hartford, WI - Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Photo courtesy of Paul Hundley

Instead of going with a high-maintenance, easily eroded option, Kafka Granite helped Erin Hills find the perfect pathway mixture for

Kafka Granite’s stabilized pathways are a slightly more affordable option than wax polymer pathways, which helped Erin Hills conserve costs. Because of its affordability and versatility, our unique Stabilized Pathway Mix was used wherever the more durable wax polymer mix was unneeded. Through a combination of both wax polymer and stabilized pathways, a truly remarkable pathway system was created. 

The Follow-Up: Erin Hills’ Golf Course Pathways Today

Instead of going with a high-maintenance option that would be easily eroded over time, Kafka Granite helped Erin Hills find the perfect pathway mixture for their one-of-a-kind golf course. Thanks to the hard work performed by our team in conjunction with the groundskeepers from the Erin Hills golf course, these new walkways have been enjoyed by all for years—and they continue to perform. 

Zachary Reineking, Director of Course Maintenance for Erin Hills, had this to say about their new pathways at the end of this project: “Over the years, Erin Hills has tried an array of products for our undulating walk paths. The wax polymer and stabilized crushed granite from Kafka Granite provides a superior combination of ease of installation, durability, limited maintenance, and great aesthetics.”

The golf course pathway solutions implemented at Erin Hills have held up beautifully over the years. The course sees approximately 18,000 rounds of golf each season. Factor in caddies, maintenance staff and other individuals, and Erin Hill’s pathways endure foot traffic from about 30,000 people each year. On average, the course has seen pathway sections last for five to six years before requiring maintenance or a refresh. Ultimately, the application of this unique pathway system has made maintaining the course all the easier for Erin Hills.

Transform Your Golf Course with Kafka Granite

At Kafka Granite, we’re proud to be a true partner to our customers. With over 60 colors of specialty crushed aggregates for manufacturing, architecture and landscaping available, we can create unique products that will perfectly reflect your design vision. Whether you’re in need of customized pathway solutions or erosion-resistant bunker sand, our knowledgeable sales representatives are eager to help you find the ideal solution for your next project. Contact us today to learn more.